Heart Failure (HF) is a pandemic disease all over the world. Almost 26 million people have been affected by this disease, which is increasing daily. Annually, almost 300,000 are deaths from this disease. Acute decompensated heart failure is one of them.
It is a complex clinical syndrome. HF is not fully curable but gradually progressive. Therefore, avoiding food harmful to health, exercise, and some medication system is useful to get a healthy heart.
An Overview Of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure
A sudden difficulty or worsening of Heart Failure signs and symptoms is known as acute heart failure decompensation. It is an acuity of chronic cardiac, pulmonary or renal dysfunction. It includes difficulty breathing (dyspnea), swelling of the legs or feet, and fatigue. In addition, it is a common and hypothetically severe cause of acute respiratory distress.
Cause of Acute Decompensation Heart Failure
Severe congestion of various organs by fluid that incompetently circulates by the failing heart is the main cause of ADHF. However, chronic stable heart failure also can be decompensating. Some other causes of ADHF are as follows:
- Inter-current illness (pneumonia
- Myocardial infarction (such as heart attack)
- Abnormal heart rhythm(arrhythmia)
- Uncontrolled high blood pressure
- Excess fluid or salt intake
- Failure of heart-healthy diet or medications
Some medications cause fluid retention as NSAIDs and thiazolidinedione precipitate to decompensate.
Sign And Symptoms of ADHF
ADHF is the sudden difficulty of the sign and symptoms of heart failure. It includes signs and symptoms such as breathing (dyspnea), swelling of legs or feet, and fatigue. It is a common and hypothetically serious cause of acute respiratory distress. Some other symptoms include:
- Chest pain
- Difficulty breathing with physical activity
- Difficulty breathing while lying flat
- Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (episodes of waking up from sleep gasping for air)
- Weight loss
- Low urine output
- Waking up at night to urinate
- Memory impairment
Treatment of ADHF
Patients with ADHF having hypertension, worsening renal function, and altered mental status should be considered high risk and must be hospitalized. Doctors or specialists should treat patients having the sign and symptoms of ADHF in a planned way. The treatment of a patient with ADHF is briefly described below:
If the patient’s blood oxygen levels are low, supplemental oxygen may be administered. However, the heart failure society of America has recommended that it not be used routinely.
Acute decompensated heart failure is clinically treated with some combinations of vasodilators such as nitroglycerine, a loop diuretic such as furosemide, and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV). In addition, some other medications are also used to treat patient who is experiencing heart failure.
Common medications prescribed to the patient with heart failure are ACE inhibitors, vasodilators, beta-blockers, aspirin, calcium channel blockers, and cholesterol-lowering medications.
If blood pressure is low (SBP < 90mmHg), inotropic are indicated.
- Opioids: It has been used to treat acute pulmonary edema.
- Ultrafiltration: Ultrafiltration removes fluids in people with ADHF associated with kidney failure. Studies say that it can decrease health care utilization at 90 days.
Acute Decompensate Heart Failure Surgery
Doctors recommend surgery to treat the underlying problems that lead to heart failure. Various procedures are used to treat different levels of necessity. These are coronary artery bypass surgery, heart valve repair or replacement, and heart transplantation.
Heart pumps, pacemakers, and defibrillators are used during these procedures. The heart is a critical part of the human body. If it doesn’t work for a moment, blood circulation will stop, and the whole body will collapse.
This is because cells don’t get enough oxygen and can’t retreat carbon-di-oxide from the cell. Sometimes it causes a heart attack or stroke. So we must be more careful about hearts: food habits, exercise, surgery, and some medical help to get a healthy heart.