Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia is a rare type of Cardiomyopathy that occurs when the right ventricle’s muscle tissue is died and is replaced with scar tissue. The heart’s electrical signals are disrupted by it and cause arrhythmias. It is a genetic defect and causes abnormalities in the lower heart chambers and the ventricles.
Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia is also known as right ventricular Cardiomyopathy, right ventricular contraction, and right ventricular dysplasia (different from Premature Ventricular Cardiomyopathy).
Causes Of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia
ARVD is a disease caused by several genetic defects and also caused by mutations in the genes that encode desmosomal proteins. These proteins are on the surface of the heart muscle cells and are involved in the adhesion of these cells.
This genetic defect is responsible for abnormalities in the lower heart chambers and the ventricles. When the disease progresses, the heart muscle, especially on the right side, is replaced by the fatty tissue known as dysplasia. It causes dangerous heart rhythms and leads the heart muscle to become weakened; that is called Cardiomyopathy. This disease runs into the family because it is a genetic disease.
Symptoms Of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia
The right ventricle is affected by ARVD, and sometimes the left ventricle can also be affected. It may appear some signs and symptoms. those are as follows:
- Heart palpitations with unpleasant awareness of the heartbeat.
- Shortness of breath with exertion or when lying down
- Chest pain
- Swelling in the legs and other areas
- Persistent cough
Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia Treatment
No curative treatment is available for the treatment of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Treatment is generally done by controlling the patient’s ventricular arrhythmias and managing heart failure. The main goal of this disease’s initial stage is to prevent sustained ventricular arrhythmias or sudden death.
- Some antiarrhythmic drug therapy is used to treat it. Some antiarrhythmic drugs such as; beta-blockers or amiodarone are used to suppress catecholamine-triggered ventricular arrhythmias.
- On the other hand, the most effective drug is sotalol.
- Warfarin is also recommended to prevent thrombus formation.
- Radiofrequency ablation of conduction pathways may be attempted in patients with persistent symptomatic arrhythmias.
- Urgent insertion of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator is also required in a patient with a high risk of features.
- ACE inhibitors, diuretics, and anticoagulants are also used to treat it,
- Sometimes cardia implantation may also be required.
Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia Diagnosis
Based on an analysis of the International Task Force, ARVC/D is a difficult heart disability that is a little bit critical to diagnose. To diagnose ARVC, a heart specialist must follow several clinical tests and family history, pre-symptoms, and other patient medical reports.
Track Clinical History
The Clinical History process is the primary step in diagnosing ARVC. A cardiologist will go through some basic clinical tests to figure out the preliminary stage of ARVD. These tests will mainly work on detecting Normal Sinus Rhythm. These may include:
- Cardiac Arrest
Follow Diagnostic Test
To check the heart rhythm, a cardiologist will follow several ECGs. ECG and Cardiac MRI are so helpful and the final steps in the criteria diagnosis of ARVD. Various tests and processes should be followed as it is challenging to diagnose ARVD.
- Right ventricular Contrast Angiography
- Computed Tomography
- Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging
- Endomyocardial Biopsy
ARVD Risk Factors And Prevention
There are various risks that a patient has to face if they got affected by ARVD. It could end up in the sudden death of ARVC affected patient. Arrhythmias, RV failure, and heart failure could also happen for Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia.
To prevent ARVC, a cardiologist will check on the patient’s age, pathogenic genetic variants, male sex, tissue characterization, or more.
ARVD Risk factors could be like anyone on the list:
- Overt electrical disorder
- RV failure
- Clinical manifestations
- Heart failure
- Sudden death
Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia is a complex heart dysplasia. If several symptoms appear, you are suggested to consult any specialist soon. Don’t ever think about living with ARV dysplasia. You better follow the essential treatment checklist first.