When a scar or defect is made in the heart tissue to stop unusual electrical signals that move through the heart and cause abnormal uneven heartbeat (arrhythmia).
Now it has become the primary treatment for some diseases such as atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia, focal atria, tachycardia, atrial flutter, and so on. Ablation is a technique used to treat and test its efficiency in treating some more complicated arrhythmia such as atrial fibrillation (AFib) is treated by cardiac ablation surgery.
Ways Of Cardiac Ablation Surgery
There are mainly two ways of Ctrial Ablation done by doctors. The ways of Cardiac Ablation are different for the effect of cardiac discomfort. Ways of Cardiac Ablation are:
- Catheter Cardiac Ablation
- Cardiac Surgical Ablation
Catheter Cardiac Ablation
A thin, flexible tube called a catheter is put into a blood vessel in the leg or neck to guide the heart is called cardiac catheter ablation. It is also known as radiofrequency or pulmonary vein ablation. It can destroy those cells which cause arrhythmia. As a result, it helps to beat the heart regularly. There are mainly two types of catheter ablation.
A. Radiofrequency Ablation: In this process, a catheter sends radiofrequency energy (similar to microwave heat) to make circular scars or wounds in each vein or group of veins.
B. Cryoablation: In this procedure, a single catheter is used to send a balloon tipped with a
material that freezes the tissue to cause a scar.
Cardiac Surgical Ablation
Cardiac surgical ablation cuts into the chest to do an ablation into the heart. There are mainly three types of cardiac surgical ablations to do. They are:
A. Maze Procedure: This kind of cardiac ablation is done when someone has open heart surgery for other problems such as; bypass or valve replacement. It is done by making a small cut in the upper part of the heart and stitching them together again to form the scar tissue to stop unusual signals.
B. Mini Maze: When open-heart surgery is not needed in people with atrial fibrillation, this less invasive type of ablation is done. This process is done by making several small cuts between the ribs and using a camera to do a catheter ablation.
Robotic-assisted surgery is also done to make this process more precise. A video camera or tiny robot is kept in the chest to guide scar tissue creation, which may help keep the heartbeat in the right place.
C. Convergent Procedure: This is the pair of catheter ablation with a mini maze. In this process, a radiofrequency is used in the pulmonary vein, and a small cut is done under the breastbone to use radiofrequency on the outside of the heart.
Risks of Cardiac Ablation Surgery
Any procedure to treat any disease has some problems. There are also some risks in cardiac ablation. Those are given below:
- Blood vessels may be damaged if the catheter scrapes them.
- Damage to the heart’s electrical system may cause arrhythmia.
- Clotting of blood in legs or lungs.
- Stroke or heart attack.
- Infection can occur in the area of the catheter that went in.
- Some heart damage like punctures or damaged Valves.
- Narrowing of the veins between lungs and heart.
- Kidney damage from the dye.
Advantages of Cardiac Ablation Surgery
Untreated atrial fibrillation may cause blood clots, heart failure, or stroke. These could be threatening; Doctors will wait, watch, and consider risk factors before suggesting any treatment.
The doctor may prescribe warfarin or another blood thinner if there are no symptoms or mild symptoms. Drugs can keep heart rhythm regular and treat atrial fibrillation, but there may be side effects.
They may stop working after a while. So, cardiac ablation is another option to treat because this treatment lasts longer or can cure atrial fibrillation.
Many people with atrial fibrillation can be treated with non-surgical ablation because it is more successful. Individuals will recover successfully through these cardiac ablation treatments and return to routine quickly.
Preparation for Cardiac Ablation
Some preparation is needed before any medical treatment procedure. For example, in cardiac ablation, the medical team will tell the patient to:
- Stop eating and drinking the night before the procedure.
- Stop taking medications several days before treating arrhythmia.
- Know from the doctor if it is needed to stop some other drugs.
- Know about the precautions and other medications.
- Ask the doctor about precautions if you have a pacemaker or implanted fibrillation.
The doctor will give specific instructions in preparing cardiac ablation, and the patient should be prepared according to the doctors’ precautions. Maintain follow a healthy diet and exercise.