Sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart pump effectively is known as cardiac arrest. It is a severe heart condition. The heart gives up beating in cardiac arrest, and that is known as sudden cardiac death. It generally occurs when the heart begins to beat abnormally. This cardiac arrest is also known as cardiopulmonary arrest, sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), sudden cardiac death (SCD).
What is Cardiac Arrest?
Cardiac arrest is a different kind of disability of heart function; It could be sudden breathing problems and unconsciousness. However, cardiac arrest is the most common cause of coronary artery disease. There is no pre-sign of this heart discomfort; it mainly happens suddenly. This article is about some of the common causes of sudden cardiac arrest and how to treat it.
Causes of Cardiac Arrest
There are some causes of cardiac arrest and may be cardiac or non-cardiac. The causes of cardiac arrest are given below:
Coronary Artery Disease
Coronary artery disease, known as ischemic heart disease, is responsible for 60% to 70% of all cardiac arrests.
Some Structural Heart Disease
These are responsible for causing cardiac arrest, including:
- Cardiomyopathies (hypertrophic, dilated, or arrhythmogenic)
- Congenital coronary artery anomalies.
- Cardiac rhythm disturbances.
- Hypertensive heart disease.
- Congestive heart failure.
- Left ventricular hypertrophy is also a leading cause of sudden cardiac death in adults. It is caused by long-standing high blood pressure.
Inherited Arrhythmia Syndrome
Genetic disorders lead to abnormal heart rhythms. It affects some special proteins as ion particles that conduct electrically charged particles across the cell membrane, and this condition is known as Channelopathies. Some genetically inherited arrhythmia conditions are:
Brugada syndrome, Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, etc. These conditions cause death in several people by causing cardiac arrest.
There is some non-cardiac reason for cardiac arrest, such as:
Gastrointestinal bleeding, aortic rupture, hypovolemic shock, drowning, pulmonary embolism, etc. It also can be occurred by sudden poisoning by Jellyfish or through electrocution lighting. Some other causes of cardiac arrest are:
- Lack of blood volume (hypervolemia).
- A lack of oxygen is known as hypoxia.
- An abnormal pH in the body.
- A low core body temperature (Hypothermia).
- Myocardial infarction (Thrombosis) heart attack.
- Traumatic cardiac arrest.
- Drug overdose.
- Low or high blood glucose.
- A collapsed lung.
- Fluid building up around the heart.
- Deficient potassium.
- Intense physical exercise.
- Irregular heart valve.
- Large heart.
Symptoms of Cardiac Arrest
Cardiac arrest does not lead to any warning of symptoms in about 50% of people. The cardiac arrest occurs very suddenly there will be:
- Chest pain (Read: Differences between heart attack and chest pain).
- Shortness of breath.
When someone is attacked by cardiac arrest, there will be a lack of palpable pulse in the victim and loss of cerebral perfusion (blood flow to the brain), and the victim will rapidly lose consciousness and stop breathing.
Treatment of Cardiac Arrest
The person attacked with cardiac arrest will die without immediate treatment and medical attention. Starting immediate CPR (Cardiopulmonary resuscitation) is essential to keep blood and oxygen circulation to the brain and around the body.
A defibrillator may be used to deliver a controlled electric shock to make the heartbeat normally again. After having an experience of a cardiac arrest, the doctor will suggest following some indication to reduce further risk of cardiac arrest. This can include:
- Eating a healthy diet.
- Giving up consumption of alcohol.
- Stop smoking.
- Being physically active.
There are some other effective treatments of cardiac arrest as:
- In addition, medication can lower cholesterol and reduce blood pressure, which may decrease the risk of cardiac arrest.
- Surgery is another way to recover the blood vessels and heart valves that can remove the blockage in the arteries.
- Physical exercise is also important to reduce the risk of sudden cardiac arrest because it helps to improve cardiovascular fitness.
- Healthy weight-maintaining is another way to treat a patient experienced with cardiac arrest to
reduce further risk of cardiac arrest.
The term of heart attack and cardiac arrest is not same. A heart attack may cause cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest causes when the pacemaker can’t generate electrical signals properly. During cardiac arrest, death can occur quickly if proper steps aren’t taken. So take care of your heart health by following the 7 best exercises and lead a peaceful life.