Cardiac Catheterization is a procedure to diagnose and treat certain types of cardiovascular conditions. In this process, a long thin tube, a catheter, is inserted in an artery or vein in the neck, arm, or groin to thread or wound through blood vessels to the heart.
Doctors do diagnostic tests by using this catheter as a part of catheterization. Coronary angioplasty and coronary stenting treatment are also done using this cardiac catheterization process. Cardiac catheterization is done to see if someone has any heart problem and is also used to correct a known one.
Reason for Doing a Cardiac Catheterization
Scientists are inserting virtual blockages in blood flow into the heart in a virtual catheterization lab. Patients whose coronary CT scan report is positive require a cardiac catheterization with possible angioplasty and stent placement.
Cardiac catheterization, when test CT scan, potentially damages the kidneys and utilizes IV dye. If someone with heart disease is tested with cardiac catheterization, the doctor may:
- Locate narrowing and blockage in the vessels of blood that cause chest pain.
- Check the pumping function of the right and left ventricular.
- Take tissue samples from the heart (biopsy).
- Looks heart valve problem.
- Diagnose congenital heart defects.
Measure oxygen levels and pressure in dissimilar heart parts (hemodynamic assessment). Cardiac catheterization is also used to treat individuals having a cardiac disease. This is used as a part of some procedures to treat cardiac disease. In this procedure:
- Irregular heart rhythm is treated with ablation.
- Blood clotting of the heart is prevented by closing off part of the heart.
- Narrowed artery widening with or without stent replacement.
- Heart valves are repaired and replaced.
- Narrowed heart valves are opened by balloon valvuloplasty.
Risks of Cardiac Catheterization
Cardiac catheterization is the procedure to test or treat heart and blood vessels; it can have some risks. There are no major complications, but it has some risks. Those are:
- Allergic reactions to medications.
- Allergic reaction to the dye.
- Heart attack.
- Irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmia).
- Damage to the kidney.
- Clotting of types of blood.
- The artery or the catheter inserted area of the heart is damaged.
Preparation of Cardiac Catheterization
Any procedure of treatment goes under after some preparations. For example, cardiac catheterization is performed in the hospital and requires some preparations before the test. Those are:
- Don’t eat or drink anything before at least 6 hours of the test.
- The patient will be recommended to stop medications such as warfarin, aspirin, apixaban, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban that may thin the blood.
- Supplements and medications associated with this procedure should be taken.
- Blood pressure is checked before starting the procedure Pulse is also checked.
- The patient is asked to use the toilet to empty the bladder.
- The patient will be asked to remove jeweler, especially neckless, which can interfere with heart pictures.
Cardiac Catheterization Procedure
Cardiac Catheterization is a procedure of wearing a ring in the heart vessel to flow blood freely. This process is mainly done by the method of:
- Under an aseptic condition.
- This is done in a procedure room with special X-ray and imaging machines.
- The operating room will be sterile.
- It is done while the patient is awakened but sedated.
- Ablation, valve replacement, and valve repair are done while keeping the patient under general anesthesia.
- Additional medications required during this procedure will be given by inserting an IV in the hand or arm.
- Heartbeat is checked by placing a monitor or electrodes on the chest nurse will shave the catheter, inserting sites to remove hair.
- Anesthesia will be given to numb the area. The patient can feel quick, stinging pain before the numbness sets in.
- A small cut is done to access the artery, and the catheter is inserted after the numbness sets in.
- A plastic sheath also will be inserted in the cut to insert the catheter.
Coronary Angiogram is used to check the blockage; Right Heart Catheterization is used to check the pressure and blood flow on the right side of the heart.
Take heart sample to do heart biopsy; Balloon Angioplasty follows with or without stenting to open a narrowed artery near the heart, to repair heart defects, valve replacement, and heart ablation. Take care of your heart and lead a peaceful life.