Now a day’s, heart (cardiac) disease has become prevalent in people over the world. If someone has had any heart disease or heart attack, they will be prescribed medications that should be taken for the rest of their life.
It is essential to know about the combination of those medicines. Many medicines are prescribed to treat heart disease, and doctors will decide on the best treatment combination depending on the type of heart disease. The patient should know what medications do and how to use them safely.
Cardiac Medication List
Using these medications properly and safely will help the patient lead a quality life and extend their duration. Doctors generally prescribe some most common medicines for the patient having heart disease. Those are as follows:
- Antiplatelet agents and dual antiplatelet therapy.
- ACE inhibitors
- Calcium Channel Blockers.
- Cholesterol-lowering medication.
- Angiotensin receptor-Neprilysin inhibitors.
Antiplatelet Agents and Dual Antiplatelet Therapy
Generally, platelet helps to clot blood, but it helps prevent a blood clot in a patient who has had a heart attack, unstable angina, ischemic stroke, and another cardiovascular disease. Some patients have been prescribed aspirin with other antiplatelet drugs, known as dual antiplatelet therapy.
Patients who have experienced any coronary artery disease or underwent coronary artery bypass surgery are simultaneously treated with two types of antiplatelet agents.
Aspirin is one of them and is treated the patient with aspirin for the rest of his life. Another is P2Y 12, which is usually prescribed for several months or years along with the aspirin. Some drugs suggested for this treatment area:
- Dipyridamole (persantine).
- Clopidogrel (Plavix).
- Prasugrel (efficient).
Anticoagulants are generally used to prevent blood coagulation (clot) ability. These are generally used to treat certain blood vessels and heart and lung conditions. It helps prevent harmful clots from forming in the blood vessels and helps prevent the clot from becoming larger.
It is prescribed to prevent first or recurrent stroke and prevent creating some more severe problems. Very commonly used in some anticoagulants areas:
- Apixaban Eliquis).
- Dabigatran (Pradaxa).
- Edoxaban (savaysa).
- Heparin (various).
- Rivaroxaban (Xarelto).
- Warfarin (Coumadin).
ACE Inhibitors (Anti Converting Inhibitors)
ACE inhibitors (anti converting inhibitors) treat or improve cardiovascular conditions like heart failure or high blood pressure. This medication lowers the levels of angiotensin II and expands the blood vessels.
It helps to flow the blood more easily and makes the heart work easier and more efficiently. Some ACE inhibitors are commonly prescribed to treat heart disease, and those are:
- Benazepril (Lotensin).
- Enalapril (Vasotec).
- Lisinopril (Prinivil).
- Perindopril (Aceon).
- Quinapril (Accupril).
- Ramipril (Accupril) Trandolapril (Mavik) etc.
It helps the body to release excess fluid and sodium through urination. It reduces the heart’s workload and decreases the fluid buildup in the lungs and other parts. It is generally used to reduce the blood pressure and swelling that occurs by excess fluid in the body.
It reduces the fluid buildup in the lungs and other parts of the body such as ankles, feet, and legs. Some common diuretics areas:
- Indapamide (Lozol).
- Metallocene (zaroxolyn).
- Furosemide (Lasix).
- Bumetanide (Bumex).
- Acetazolamide (Diamox).
- Chlorothiazole (Diuril) etc.
Beta-Blockers are also known as Beta-adrenergic blocking agents. It is used to lower blood pressure and for cardiac arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms). It is also used to treat chest pain and future heart attack in a patient who has had a heart attack experience.
It lowers blood pressure by reducing the heart rate and force of contraction. It makes the heartbeat slow and with less force. Beta-blockers medications commonly include:
- Atenolol (Tenormin).
- Acebutolol (Sectral).
- Nadolo (Corgard).
- Bisoprolol (Zebeta).
- Metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL)
- Sotalol (Betapace) etc.
Calcium Channel Blockers
It is also known as calcium antagonists or calcium blockers. It decreases the heart pumping strength and relaxes heart vessels by interrupting the movement of calcium into the heart and the vessels.
High blood pressure and chest pain caused by a reduced blood supply in the heart muscle are generally used to treat this method and some arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythm). Some commonly used calcium channel blocker medications are:
- Nimodipine (Nimotop).
- Nisoldipine (Sular).
- Verapamil(Calan, Verelan).
- Nifedipine (adalat, Procardia).
- Felodipine (Plendil) etc.
Cholesterol Lowering Medications
Statins are mostly used to treat patients who have had a heart attack or stroke, bypass surgery, stents, or diabetes. People having a high LDL (Low-density lipoprotein) should also take statins. It decreases the bad LDL (Low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol by 20% to 60% and reduces inflammation.
Some other drugs rather than statins are usually used only in patients whose statins are ineffective and have serious side effects. They can affect the liver; some work in the intestine and form cholesterol from blood circulation. So the patient should talk to the doctor. Cholesterol-lowering educations include:
- Statins: Atrovastin (Lipitor), Fluvastin (Lesocol), Lovasrtatin (Mevacor) etc.
- Nicotinic acid: niacin.
- Cholesterol absorption inhibitor: Ezetimibe (Zetin).
- Combination statin and cholesterol inhibitors: Ezetimibe/Simvastatin (Vytorin).
Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor (ARNIs)
It is a drug combination of a neprilysin inhibitor and an ARB. This treatment was used to treat heart failure. It is an enzyme that opens narrowed enzymes by breaking down natural substances in the body.
It also increases the effects of the substances, improves artery opening, improves blood flow, reduces sodium retention, and decreases strain in the heart by limiting the effect of the neprilysin enzyme. Commonly prescribed include:
- Sacubitril/ Valsartan (Entresto).
A type of vasodilator called nitrates increases blood and oxygen supply to the heart while reducing its workload that can ease chest pain. It decreases blood pressure and relaxes the vessels.
Nitroglycerin is absorbed under the tongue (Sublingual), a spray, and a topical application (Cream). It is also used to comfort chest pain.
The doctors suggest all these medications treat cardiac or coronary artery disease. Individuals should follow the indications and have these drugs regularly to have a quality life and extended life. Although it is difficult to cure coronary or heart disease, patients can have a good life by following the indications.