Actually human body conation four valves those flow blood in the correct direction. These four valves are the mitral valve, tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve, and aortic valve. These four valves have leaflets or cusps that open once during each heartbeat. When one or more of these valves don’t work properly and don’t open or close accurately is known as heart valve disease. This can disrupt the blood flow from the heart to the body.
Common Causes Of Heart Valve Disease
heart valve disease can be present in an individual’s body from birth and that is known as congenital and can be developed later in life and that is known as acquir5ed. Sometimes the causes of heart valve disease remain unknown.
1. Congenital: This valve disease develops before birth and that’s why it is called congenital. Aortic or pulmonic valve affected for the Congenital heart disease. The size of valves may be abnormal and have malformed leaflets or leaflets that are not attached correctly.
2. Bicuspid Aortic Valve Disease: This is a kind of valve disease that affects the aortic valve. It also a congenital valve disease. In this case, the valve may stiff (unable to open or close properly) or leaky (not able to close tightly). Because, instead of the normal three leaflets, the bicuspid aortic valves have only two.
3. Acquired Valve Disease: This can be occurred at any time of life after birth and develop with valves that were normal. This may cause changes in the structure of the valve due to various disease or infections such as rheumatic fever, endocarditis
4. Mitral Valve Prolapses: It is a very common condition and affects 1%-2% of the population.it causes the leaflets of the mitral valve to flop back into the left atrium during the heart contraction. It also causes the valve to become leak, abnormal and stretchy. It rarely causes symptoms and doesn’t require treatment.
There Are Some Other Causes Of Valve Disease:
Such as; coronary artery disease (heart muscle disease), syphilis (a sexually transmitted disease), high blood pressure, connective tissue disease, history of certain forms of heart attack, high cholesterol, diabetes, infections, and aortic aneurysms. Some other less common causes also are tumors, drugs, and radiation.
Heart Valve Disease Symptoms
It is a disease that affects the heart and has symptoms like other heart diseases. Heart valve disease symptoms don’t always relate to seriousness. Mitral valve disease may have some noticeable symptoms. Some symptoms of heart valve disease are:
- Shortness of Breath
- Difficulty Catching a Breath
- Weakness or Dizziness
- Chest pain or Discomfort in the Chest
- Rapid Weight Gain
- Swelling of Feet, Ankles, or Abdomen
Heart Valve Disease Diagnosis
The doctor will want to know about the sign and symptoms, performing some physical exams and other tests. The doctor will listen to the heart sounds that are made by opening and closing valves. Murmur is a sound that is made during blood flowing through a stenotic or leaky valve. The doctor will want to know if the heart rhythm is irregular.
The doctor will also listen to the lungs to hear if the individual is retaining fluid there, which shows that the heart is unable to pumps as well as it should. After examining the body, the doctor can find clues and will suggest some other diagnostic tests. Those are:
- Transesophageal Echocardiography
- Cardiac Catheterization (also called an angiogram)
Heart Valve Disease Treatment And Prevention
Treatment of valve disease mainly depends on the type and severity of the disease. Protecting the valve from damage, lessening symptoms, medications, and replacing valves are the main treatments for valve disease.
Protecting Valve From Further Damage
people who have valve disease or have replaced the valve are at high risk. Individuals may tell a doctor or dentist if they have valve disease. If any patient shows any of the symptoms like sore throat, general body aches and fever should consult a doctor immediately. The patient should take good care of teeth and gums to prevent further damage or infection
Heart Valve Disease Medications
doctors may prescribe medications to treat symptoms and lessen the chance of further valve damage. Some drugs may be stopped after having valve surgery and some needed to be taken all his (patient) life. Some drugs which are suggested to treat the valve disease are:
- Anti-arrhythmic Medications
- ACE Inhibitors
- Anticoagulants (Blood Thinner)
Heart Valve Disease Surgery And Other Procedure
After diagnostic tests, the doctor will know about the location, type, and extend of valve disease. The results of tests will help to suggest a better treatment. Surgery is the replacement or repairing of the heart. Replacement can be done with traditional heart valve surgery or invasive heart valve surgery. Heart valve can also be repaired by other procedures as percutaneous billon valvuloplasty. A new surgical procedure is transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).
Heart Valve Disease Complications
As one of the most difficult diseases, heart valve disease has some complications. All the complication are here:
- Heart Failure
- Blood Clots
- Abnormal Heart Rhythm
- And Eventually Death
All I wanted to cover some basics about heart valve disease. Regarding the title, I tried to cover all the basics about the targeted topic. Obviously, you need to talk with a specialist before taking any steps if you have the symptoms written in the article.