February 4, 2023
High Blood Pressure

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Causes, Treatment

High blood pressure is a condition in which blood pressure increases to an unhealthy level. In this condition, the long-term force of the blood against the artery wall is high enough that it may cause various health problems.

Blood pressure is high when the arteries are narrow. High blood pressure can cause blood vessel damage and organ damage such as the brain, heart, eyes, and kidneys.

This is a very common fact worldwide, and it is thought that about half of the adults in America can be diagnosed with this condition. High blood pressure is most common in adults; children are also at risk of high blood pressure.

Causes of High Blood Pressure

Mainly the causes of high blood pressure are determined depending on its types. There are two types of high blood pressure, and those have different causes.

Causes of Primary High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

Primary hypertension is also called essential hypertension, and this kind of hypertension has no specific identifiable causes. The causes of the increase in this blood pressure are still unclear to researchers. This kind of high blood pressure is present in most people. Some factors cause it. Those are:

  • In some people, this blood pressure is genetically inherited from a parent’s gene mutation or genetic abnormalities.
  • Physical Changes: Some physical changes may cause primary high blood pressure. If the salts and fluid are imbalanced in the body, it may cause high blood pressure.
  • Environment: Unhealthy lifestyle may also cause high blood pressure. If there is a lack of physical activities in daily life and an unhealthy diet, it may increase body weight and lead to high blood pressure. Sometimes pregnancy also causes high blood pressure.

Causes of Secondary High Blood Pressure

Secondary hypertension becomes more severe than primary hypertension and occurs very quickly. Some conditions may cause secondary hypertension. Such as:

  • Adrenal gland tumors
  • Thyroid problems
  • Kidney disease
  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Certain defects in blood vessels that are congenital
  • Some medications as cold remedies, contra septic pills, unavoidable pain killers, etc.
  • Some illegal drugs such as cocaine, amphetamines, age, family history, obesity, not being physically active, using tobacco, too much salt in the diet and too little potassium in the diet, stress, and drinking too much alcohol are the most effective causes of high blood pressure (hypertension).

Symptoms of High Blood Pressure

Many people having hypertension will not appear any symptoms because it is a silent condition. It may take several years to show signs. The symptom of severe hypertension is given below:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Headache
  • Nosebleeds
  • Flushing
  • Blood in the urine
  • Chest pain
  • Dizziness
  • Visual change

Complications of Hypertension

According to heart specialists, there are some common complications a high blood pressure patient has to face. Some complications of high blood pressure are listed below:

  • Causes Heart attack or stroke
  • Aneurism
  • Heart failure
  • Difficulties in blood vessels in the kidney
  • Difficulties in blood vessels in the eyes
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Memory and  understanding problem
  • Dementia

Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is generally checked as a routine checkup. It is very simple to diagnose hypertension by taking blood pressure. If blood pressure is high, the doctor will suggest following some further diagnosis process, although hypertension diagnosis is rarely given after just one read.

Doctors need some other evidence of sustained problems because the environment also can cause an increase the blood pressure for a short time. Blood pressure levels change several times a day. If blood pressure remains high, doctors will conduct more tests such as:

  • Urine test
  • Cholesterol screening
  • Blood tests
  • Heart electrical activity test with an electrocardiogram or echocardiogram
  • Ultrasound of heart and kidneys

Note: These tests may help the doctor to identify if there is any severe blood pressure condition.

Treatment of High Blood Pressure

Various factors may help doctors treat patients with high blood pressure. It can be done depending upon the type of high blood pressure.

Treatment of Primary Hypertension

Lifestyle changes are the most effective treatment to reduce primary hypertension. However, lifestyle changes are not enough to treat to reduce them. If it becomes more effective, the doctor will suggest medication.

Treatment of Secondary High Blood Pressure

The doctor focuses on treating any issues that cause high blood pressure. For example, if high blood pressure is caused by any medicines you take, doctors will try to suggest other treatments.

Sometimes, high blood pressure can’t be controlled with treatment; doctors will work on lifestyle changes and prescribe other drugs to reduce high blood pressure. Sometimes, drugs used from the early stage become less effective, and doctors will continue to work with the patient to refine the treatment.

Medications for High Blood Pressure

Patients must try different medicines until they find one or a combination of medicines working for them. Doctors suggest some treatment that helps to treat high blood pressure. These are:

  • Beta-blockers
  • Diuretics
  • ACE inhibitors
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)
  • Calcium channel blockers
  • Alpha-2 agonists

Some home remedies are also effective in controlling high blood pressure. Those are:

  • Developing a healthy diet is very important to keep blood pressure under control. A healthy diet includes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, Lean protein, fish, etc.
  • Increasing physical activity
  • I am reaching a healthy weight.
  • Managing stress is another way to control high blood pressure. Exercise is a very great way to manage stress. Some other ways to manage stress include meditation, deep breathing, massage, muscle relaxation, yoga, etc.
  • Adopting a cleaner lifestyle may include; avoiding alcohol, tobacco, and cocaine because these can raise blood pressure.

The gist of the incentive is that the heart is one of the most important parts of the human body. If it doesn’t work properly, blood circulation will fall into a hamper & cells will lose their working efficiency. All of the parts of our body will collapse. Diet, exercise & consultation with a doctor can prevent heart failure and gives us healthy life.

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