March 30, 2023
What Causes Sinus Node Dysfunction

What Causes Sinus Node Dysfunction? Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Heartbeat origin in an area of the top chambers of the heart. And this area contained Pacemaker. A pacemaker is also called the sinoatrial node (SA node). A pacemaker is used to make an electrical signal for keeping the heartbeat steady and regular with Purkinje fiber. If the sinus node is interrupted, Sick-sinus syndrome will become out.

When sick-sinus syndrome appears, High blood pressure, Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, and other heart diseases will occur. If a Pacemaker is plucked to create an electrical signal, it must be set up as an artificial Pacemaker in the human body.

What Is Sinus Node Dysfunction?

If we think about the heart’s natural pacemaker, in medical language, it’s Sinus Node. A disease characterized by the abnormal sinoatrial node that produces adequate heart rate to meet the physiological needs of the individual.

It is a sinus node disease and acts with the resultant bradycardia and cardiac insufficiency. It is the secondary senescence of the sinoatrial node and surrounds the atrial myocardium.

Sinus node dysfunction is generally the inability of the heart’s natural pacemaker to create a heart rate appropriate for the body’s needs. This sinus node dysfunction includes inappropriate sinus bradycardia, sinus pause arrest, sinoatrial exit block, alternating bradycardia, and atrial tachyarrhythmias.

Causes of Sinus Node Dysfunction

There may be some causes of sinus node dysfunction. Those can be considered intrinsic or extrinsic. Some intrinsic causes of sinus node dysfunction are listed below:

  • The commonest intrinsic cause of sinus node dysfunction is idiopathic degenerative fibrosis.
  • Ischaemia
  • Cardiomyopathies
  • Infiltrative diseases such as; sarcoidosis and hemochromatosis.
  • Congenital abnormalities.

Extrinsic causes of Sinus Node Dysfunction are also given below:

  • Some kinds of drugs cause sinus node dysfunction. Those drugs are digoxin, beta-blockers, and calcium channel blockers.
  • Autonomic dysfunction.
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Abnormalities of electrolytes-e.g., Hyperkalaemia.

All the causes are clinically proved, so remember all those causes mentioned here.

Symptoms of Sinus Node Dysfunction

Sinus node dysfunctions are generally seen in elder age but can also affect all age groups. There may be a wide range of symptoms of sinus node dysfunction. Those symptoms are given below:

  • Dizziness or lightheadedness.
  • Fatigue
  • Palpitations can be skipping, fluttering, or pounding the chest.
  • Syncope or Near-syncope (fainting).
  • Chest pain or pressure.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Mental confusion.
  • Memory problems.
  • Disrupted sleep.
  • Exercise intolerance.
  • Languid pulse (bradycardia).

If you have several symptoms on the list, please consult a doctor or a heart specialist.

Treatment of Sinus Node Dysfunction

Different treatments may be for patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic sinus node dysfunction. In asymptomatic patients, no guidelines recommend a permanent pacemaker to treat the patient.

On the other hand, patients with symptomatic sinus node dysfunction may be recommended for a permanent pacemaker replacement. This pacemaker may be a single chamber atrial pacemaker (AAI) or dual-chamber pacemaker (DDD).

The patient may be at high risk of developing atrial fibrillation, which has received a permanent pacemaker, recommended with frequent device interrogation. Some other treatments are also recommended for patients with sinus node dysfunction. Those are:

  • Electrophysiology study and catheter ablation.
  • Implantable cardioverter defibrillator.
  • Removal of extrinsic causes, e.g., non-essential drugs.

Treating Sinus Node is a kind of heart process of treatment. It needs time and proper care to recover. Be patient; keep continuing the process.

Sometimes, its condition may not be preventable. Surgery in children on the heart’s upper chamber is a common cause of sick sinus syndrome. Eating a healthy balanced diet, exercising, and taking medications (need to avoid some types of harmful medicine) can prevent sinus dysfunction.

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